Free Style Skiing

Technical Terminology
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It has been suggested that, Freestyle skiing is a product of America in the 1960s, when social change and freedom of expression led to new and exciting skiing techniques. Originally a mix of alpine skiing and acrobatics, freestyle skiing developed over the decades into the present-day Olympic sport. The International Ski Federation (FIS) recognized freestyle as a discipline in 1979 and brought in new regulations regarding certification of athletes and jump techniques in an effort to curb some of the dangerous elements of the competitions. The first FIS World Cup series was staged in 1980 and the first FIS World Championships took place in 1986 in Tignes, France, featuring moguls, aerials and ballet. Freestyle skiing, where skiers perform aerial maneuvers while skiing downhill, was a demonstration event at the Winter Olympic Games in Calgary in 1988. Mogul skiing was added to the official programme of the Albertville Games in 1992 and Aerials were added at the Lillehammer Games in 1994.


The moguls competition consists of a run down a heavily moguled course with two jumps. The Olympic format is a one-run elimination round followed by a one-run final of 16 20 women and 16 20 men. In the finals, competitors ski in the reverse order of their finish in the qualification round. The skier with the highest score in the final round wins.

The Olympic aerial format consists of a two-jump qualification followed by a two-jump final. The combined scores from the two jumps in the qualification round determine who qualifies for the finals, with 12 men and 12 women advancing to the finals. Scores from the qualification round do not carry over to the finals.

Technical Terminology

3: Three hundred and sixty (360) spin around the vertical axis.

30: Three hundred and sixty (360) spin Off-axis around the vertical axis.

7: Seven hundred and twenty (720) spins around the vertical axis.

70: Seven hundred and twenty (720) spins Off-axis, around the vertical axis.

Air: A jump in the mogul run in which the skier uses to perform jumps. Two airs are required in each moguls run.

Air Bump: A jump that has been constructed in the mogul course.

Back Full: A back flip with a full twist.

Back layout: Single flip in layout position.

Back somersault: One single backflip.

Back tuck: Single backflip in the tuck position.

Backscratcher: The skier touches his or her back with the tails of both skis. The legs are together, the knees are bent underneath the body, and the skis are parallel.

Carving: Technique of edging the skis through turns to control speed.

Control Gate: A series of 10 equally spaced gates set on the mogul course.

Cross: The crossing of the skis in an “X”.

Daffy: The skier spreads his or her legs wide apart with one in front of the body and one behind. The front ski points straight up and the back ski points straight down.

Double full: Single Layout flip with two twists.

Double full, full, full: Three flips with four twists. Two twists on the first flip, right off the jump.

Double layout or Lay-lay: Two flips in the layout position.

Double somersault: Two flips.

DSQ: Disqualification.

Fall line: An imaginary line that combines the steepest pitch and most direct line, from top to bottom, of any slope.

Flip: as Somersault, which is either performed backwards, frontwards or sideways.

Four-point landing: Both poles plant when the skier lands from a jump.

Four-point takeoff: Both poles plant as the skier takes off from the mogul.

Front somersault: One forward flip.

Front tuck: Single front flip in the tuck position.

Full: A flip with a full twist.

Full in: A full twist on the first flip of a double or triple somersault.

Full in, full out: Two flips with each flip having one twist.

Full out: A full twist on the last flip of a double or triple somersault.

Full tuck/pike: Two flips, with one twist in the first flip.

Full, double full: Two flips with three twists, with a double twist in the second flip.

Full, double full, full: Three flips with four twists. The second flip has two twists.

Full, double full, tuck: Three flips with three twists; the second flip has two twists.

Full, full, full: Three flips with three twists. Each flip has one twist.

Full, lay: Two flips in the layout position with one twist in the first flip.

Full, tuck, full: Three flips with two twists; the second flip is without a twist.

Grab: While in a jump, the skier reaches and grabs one part of the ski.

Half: A flip with a half-twist

Half in: A half-twist on the first flip of a double or triple somersault.

Half out: A full twist on the first flip of a double or triple somersault.

Half, full, half: Three flips with two twists. The first and third flips has a half twists, the second flip has full twist.

Half, half, full: Three flips. The first has a half-twist, the second has a half-twist, and the third has a full twist.

Half, rudy, full: A triple backflip, the first with a half-twist, one and a half in the second, and a full twist in the third.

Half, tuck, half: Three flips with two half-twists. Two half twists are performed in the first and third flips.

Half-half: Two flips with a half-twist in both.

Height and distance: A component of the jumping score. A term used to describe the aerialist's flight in the air.

Helicopter: Upright aerial spin of 360 degrees.

Iron cross: Similar to a backscratcher, but the skis are crossed rather than parallel.

Kicker: Name for the jumps used in aerials.

Knoll: The line that separates the table from the landing hill.

Kosak: A combination of a spread eagle and a zudnick.

Lay, full: Double flip in the layout position with a full twist in the second flip.

Lay, full, full: A double-twisting triple flip. Twists occur in the second and third flips.

Lay, full, tuck: Triple flip, first in the layout position, second flip with a twist, third in a tuck.

Lay, lay, full: Triple flip, first two flips in layout position, third laid out with a twist.

Lay, tuck: Double flip, with the first in the layout position and the second in the tuck position.

Lay, tuck, full: A triple flip, the first in the layout position, the second in the tuck position, and the third in the layout with a twist.

Lay, tuck, tuck: A triple flip, the first in the layout position and the last two in the tuck position

Layout: Body position is extended as straight as possible.

Loop: A side flip, where the skier rotates around the central axis.

Mogul: A roll or ridge of snow caused by skier traffic.

Off Axis: During the take off the skier tilts the axis of rotation. This is more commonly seen in the 360 of 720 helicopters.

Pace Time: Is a calculated value which is different for men and ladies. To calculate the pace time take the course length in metres then it by the pace time value.

Pike: Jack-knifed position in which the body bends at the waist with the legs completely straight.

Pop: The body extension at the start of the jump that sets the flip in motion.

Position: A movement, which is held during jumping

Puck: Open-tuck air position with legs pulled up to 45 degrees.

Reverse trough: The technique of skiing on top of the moguls and turning in the opposite direction of the ruts.

RNS: Receives No Score.

Rudy: A flip with one and a half twists.

Ruts: The deep area between moguls.

Slapback: A poor landing in aerials, which the jumper goes to his or her back before skiing away.

Sling: A bad takeoff from the kicker when the jumper over-rotates.

Speed: The time it takes the skier to complete is worth 25% of their final score.

Spread eagle: The skier extends his or her arms and legs to the side while keeping the skis parallel and perpendicular to the body. The upper body remains straight and upright.

Table: The flat area where the jumps are built.

Takeoff: The launch of the jump.

Tip cross: Similar to the iron cross, the skier crosses the tips while remaining upright.

Trough: Deep path of ruts that runs between moguls.

Tuck: Body position in which the knees are pulled into the body.

Turns: The criteria of mogul judging, that refers to the execution of turning in moguls.

Twist: The rotation around the vertical axis

Twister: The skier rotates his or her body the opposite way of the skis.

Zudnick: The skier leans his or her upper body toward the tips of the skis, keeping the skis close together and parallel.
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